(Analysis by Dhruv Rohatgi )

In this problem, we are asked to analyze the "complexity" of the following sorting algorithm: run bubblesort passes on an array until there are partition points, and then recurse on the subarrays defined by these partition points.

The complexity of a single bubblesort pass is defined as the length of the subarray on which the bubblesort pass is run. So each element of the subarray on which the pass is run contributes one unit of complexity. This suggests that we find the number of units of complexity contributed by each element, and add everything up.

When a bubblesort pass is run on several consecutive subarrays which have already been separated by a partition point, this is equivalent (in outcome and in complexity) to running a single bubblesort pass on all of the subarrays. The only issue is that if a subarray has size $1$, it subsequently does not contribute any complexity. So we can replace the recursive quicksort algorithm with the following algorithm: bubblesort the entire array until sorted. An element contributes one unit of complexity in each pass until it is partitioned from its neighbors on both sides.

Now, for each element we need to find the number of passes until it is partitioned from its neighbors on both sides. If we can calculate for each of the $N-1$ partition points, the number of bubblesort passes after which the array is partitioned at that partition point, then the count for a specific element is the maximum of the counts of its neighboring partition points.

Fix some partition point, say between elements $i-1$ and $i$. For this to partition the array, the smallest $i$ elements must be located in the first $i$ slots of the array. Let $j$ be the initially maximum index of any of the smallest $i$ elements. Then it's not hard to see that the number of bubblesort passes required before the array is partitioned between $i-1$ and $i$ is exactly $j+1-i$: in each pass, the maximum index will decrease by exactly $1$.

After sorting the array (and breaking ties by index), we can compute the maximum index of any of the smallest $i$ elements for each $i$, in a single pass.

When computing the complexity contributed by each element as the maximum of the counts of its neighboring partition points, slight care must be taken to address the case where an element is already partitioned from its neighbors, before any bubblesort passes have taken place. Since the algorithm uses a do-while loop, the element will nonetheless contribute one unit of complexity in the first pass (unless the array consists of a single element).

Therefore the overall runtime is $O(N \log N)$ due to sorting.

#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;

int N;
int A;
int cid;
int preq;

bool cmp(int a,int b)
{
if(A[a]==A[b]) return a<b;
return A[a]<A[b];
}

int main()
{
cin >> N;
for(int i=0;i<N;i++)
{
cin >> A[i];
cid[i] = i;
}
sort(cid,cid+N,cmp);
int mx = 0;
int high = 0;
for(int i=1;i<N;i++)
{
mx = max(mx, cid[i-1]);
preq[i] = mx + 1 - i;
high = max(high, preq[i]);
}
long long ans = 0;
for(int i=0;i<N;i++)
{
int tDone = 0;
if(i > 0) tDone = max(tDone, preq[i]);
if(i < N-1) tDone = max(tDone, preq[i+1]);
if(tDone == 0 && N > 1) tDone++;
ans += tDone;
}
cout << ans << '\n';
}